The Hype Framework
In the words of Public Enemy, don’t believe the hype. Technology is full of jargon and full of hype. The current hyped up terms are full-stack, web framework, Model 2, Web2.0, and Ajax. Every language under the sun has a web Model 2 based fully-stack framework these days. I am coming out with what I call the Hype Framework. The Hype Framework has everything you can dream off in whatever language you want but you have to implement it yourself.
On a more serious note here is a list of web frameworks that have received some attention, in no particular order. In the Java space you have Struts, WebWork, Spring, Wicket, Tapestry, and tons more. In Python CherryPy, Quixote, Twisted, WebWare and Zope come to mind. And of course, Ruby has Rails.
As a software engineer, I feel that every developer should know at least two languages, for example Java and Ruby (Java and C# count as one language. C# is the bizarro version of Java), and at least one of the above frameworks.